Product Information

Cooling Towers

Cooling Towers

Cooling Towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.
Brand : Aqua Sai Technologies
Detailed Description

Cooling Towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.

Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, petrochemical and other chemical plants, thermal power stations and HVAC systems for cooling buildings. The main types of cooling towers are natural draft and induced draft cooling towers. The classification is based on the type of air induction into the tower.

Industrial Cooling Towers

Industrial cooling towers for a power plant

Industrial cooling towers can be used to remove heat from various sources such as machinery or heated process material. The primary use of large, industrial cooling towers is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, natural gas processing plants, food processing plants, semi-conductor plants, and for other industrial facilities such as in condensers of distillation columns, for cooling liquid in crystallization, etc.

Air flow generation methods  

Access stairs at the base of a massive hyperboloid cooling tower give a sense of its scale (UK)

With respect to drawing air through the tower, there are three types of cooling towers:

  • Natural draft — Utilizes buoyancy via a tall chimney. Warm, moist air naturally rises due to the density differential compared to the dry, cooler outside air. Warm moist air is less dense than drier air at the same pressure. This moist air buoyancy produces an upwards current of air through the tower.
  • Mechanical draft — Uses power-driven fan motors to force or draw air through the tower.
  • Induced draft — A mechanical draft tower with a fan at the discharge (at the top) which pulls air up through the tower. The fan induces hot moist air out the discharge. This produces low entering and high exiting air velocities, reducing the possibility ofrecirculation in which discharged air flows back into the air intake. This fan/fin arrangement is also known as draw-through.
  • Forced draft — A mechanical draft tower with a blower type fan at the intake. The fanforces air into the tower, creating high entering and low exiting air velocities. The low exiting velocity is much more susceptible to recirculation. With the fan on the air intake, the fan is more susceptible to complications due to freezing conditions. Another disadvantage is that a forced draft design typically requires more motor horsepower than an equivalent induced draft design. The benefit of the forced draft design is its ability to work with high static pressure. Such setups can be installed in more-confined spaces and even in some indoor situations. This fan/fill geometry is also known as blow-through.
  • Fan assisted natural draft — A hybrid type that appears like a natural draft setup, though airflow is assisted by a fan.

Hyperboloid (sometimes incorrectly known as hyperbolic) cooling towers (Image 1) have become the design standard for all natural-draft cooling towers because of their structural strength and minimum usage of material. The hyperboloid shape also aids in accelerating the upward convective air flow, improving cooling efficiency. These designs are popularly associated with nuclear power plants. However, this association is misleading, as the same kind of cooling towers are often used at large coal-fired power plants as well. Conversely, not all nuclear power plants have cooling towers, and some instead cool their heat exchangers with lake, river or ocean water.

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